How to use this site

This site uses software created by the Library of Congress as part of the Chronicling America project. Below you will find some generic help information originally created for the Chronicling America site. It can be applied to this site as well.


Basic Searching Techniques

Search this site to find

  • information on persons, places, or events;
  • specific topics or news of the day;
  • concepts or ideas;
  • unique passages of text, such as the source of a frequently-quoted phrase.

Users have the option of performing basic or advanced searches. The basic search box is located on the home page. Basic search options are limited to state, time period, and key words located near each other.

For basic searches, results listed first are most likely to be relevant to your search. Results will appear higher in the list when they contain

  • exact matches of your search terms;
  • more of your search terms;
  • repeated search terms;
  • search terms that occur near each other.

Your searches will yield better results if you keep the following points in mind:

  • Common words such as and, not, and the are ignored by the search engine.
  • Case of letters is ignored. For example, Civil and civil are treated the same.
  • Diacritic characters (accent marks, in non-English text) and other special characters produce inaccurate results, so plain (unaccented) letters should be substituted for letters with diacritics.

This site's search engine utilizes language-specific dictionaries to include word variants for your search terms. This is often called stemming. For example, the search term house, when stemmed in English, would also return words like houses and housing.

For more search options, see Advanced Searching below.

Advanced Searching

To make the most of searching, take advantage of the search options provided on the Advanced Search page.

  • You can search the entire date range available (default), or select a specific date and limit your search to a specific year, month, or even day, using the begin date and end date lists provided. (Note: selecting the same begin month/day/year and end month/day/year will provide links to every page available for that specific date.)
  • You can enter a specific search term or terms in the Keyword boxes provided. The operators provided will influence the results of your search significantly and can be used in separate searches or in conjunction within a single search.

Search for a Phrase

  • Enter your phrase in the appropriate "...with the phrase" search box.
  • When searching for a phrase, enter the words in the order they are most likely to occur.
  • The order of search words does not affect the scope of the search results, but it will affect the order of their display.

Search for Words Near Each Other

  • Enter your keywords into the "...with the words" search box.
  • Select a numeric value for how close the words should be to each other (proximity).
  • This type of search can be helpful in narrowing results on a given person, place or event to a specific aspect of that person, place or event. For example: "Roosevelt conservation" within 10 words will result mostly in articles about President Theodore Roosevelt's Conservation policies during his administration.

Too Many Results - If a search generates too many results, try using more specific terms and/or limiting to a specific State of publication or a particular newspaper title. Use the search box options in combination to narrow your results. For example, use "President Roosevelt" as phrase and "Roosevelt conservation" within 10 words to narrow results to text about only President Roosevelt's conservation policies.


Too Few Results - If a search generates too few results, try alternate terms or broader subjects and relax any limiting criteria (date ranges, state limitations, etc.).


Because language changes, be sure to use search terms used at the time the materials were created, even if those terms are now obsolete. For example, the following historic terms will produce more results than their modern-day counterparts:

Modern Usage vs. Historic Usage comparison table
Modern UsageHistoric Usage
gas, service stationfilling station
African AmericanAfro American, Negro
voting rightssuffrage

Use the names of towns, landmarks, bridges, buildings, and other geographic features that were current when the materials you are searching were created. For instance, the state of Oklahoma was referred to as both "Indian Territory" and "Oklahoma Territory" prior to its admission as a state, so searching for "Indian Territory" may produce more search results if searching on topics related to Oklahoma.

Matching a phrase can be useful for searching place names or when common words have a particular sense used in combination.

For example, the term "normal school" was used in the early twentieth century to describe schools for training teachers. Searching for the phrase may eliminate results containing the words "normal" and "school" in unrelated ways.

Note: Some very common words, such as and, of, the, a, and to, are ignored even when matching exact phrases.

Search and Browsing Tips

  • Many browsers have the capability of tabbed browsing, which opens a new pane in the current window, either in the background or the foreground. Users of Chronicling America have reported this as a useful method of navigating through search results- bringing up each result in a new tab. This may be accomplished by clicking with the right-hand mouse button (for Mac, hold down the Command key) and selecting "Open Link in New Tab."
  • Search results are displayed on a page that can easily be bookmarked or navigated to via the "Back" button on the browser. Every page in the Chronicling America application can be bookmarked, but only the addresses containing newspaper pages should be treated as canonical for purposes of citations and long-term referrals. These addresses are displayed in the address bar of the browser, and no special treatment is required for adding them to a citation database. (Select the "Persistent Link" URL displayed on each newspaper page view to store the link without search text highlighted.)
  • All pages are digitally scanned - primarily from microfilm, described, and automatically processed for full-text searching through a process called Optical Character Recognition (OCR). This text is organized in normal reading order (by column) and left uncorrected. Search strategies may take this into consideration (i.e., searching for shorter words and phrases when possible in order to maximize the number of search results returned).
  • One helpful way to use the full-text search feature is to enter a term or phrase containing many words that characterize the topic you wish to investigate. A full-text search will then retrieve pages with similar passages, displaying thumbnail page images with red highlights visible representing the occurrence of searched terms. This visual interface allows for quick review of full pages and search terms to determine the most useful results to view at full-size. An alternate results list is available through the List View, which will display descriptive textual links to individual pages, where search terms will be highlighted in red wherever they occur on the page.
  • Selecting a search result will bring up the newspaper page, initially displaying the full page. To read or view the page more closely, select the + or - to magnify the image, use the mouse scroll wheel, or simply click on the page image. Additionally, you can use the cursor hand to "grab" and move the image any direction, within the page frame. To return to the original full-page display, select the "go home" icon on the floating navigation bar.
  • In addition to the action icons used for this page image, other icons on this bar provide access to alternate digital formats for this newspaper page which can be downloaded. Click on the text link to download these formats.
  • In some newspapers in Chronicling America, issues or pages in logical sequence are not available digitally (usually because images were absent from the microfilm used for digitization). Whenever possible, any known information about these issues is provided, as follows:
    • Not digitized, published
    • Not digitized, not published
    • Not digitized, publishing unknown

    A good and historically significant example of missing issues is in the San Francisco Call, where the April 19th and April 20th issues from 1906 are missing due to the devastating San Francisco earthquake that prevented the newspaper from publishing on those days. In this example, the "not digitized, not published" indicator displays as such: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1906-04-19/ed-1/.

  • If you have any questions about this information or any other aspects of Chronicling America, contact the Newspaper and Current Periodicals Reading room via LC's "Ask a Librarian" service, http://www.loc.gov/rr/askalib/ask-news.html.

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