' V >fS
' ' (zh r K _ ' *
THE WEEKLYffiHI 0II01 TIMES ;
Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domeetio Economy, Polite Literature, Poktioe and the Current Howe qf the Day.
./ . * -k 1~ ? g
" VOL. XXV.?NEW SERIES. UNION C. H., SOUTH CAROLINA, FRIDAY. AUGUST 31,1894. NUMBER 35. )
Tlicro are 2S0 iron and steel ninnn*
facluring establishments iu Pennsylvania,
with an invested cupital of over
Thcro nro eleven American "oities1
that spread over moro territory than,
Paris, while Iterlin is exceeded in,
area by sovcutceu ^ our eiiioa.
Goueral Wolseley seems to havo a
poor opinion of his most famous predecessor
as commander of the British
army. In his recently published article
on the "Decline and Fall of Nanr?li>r?n."
lie savs that nnit.hnr Welling
X" ?*J ? " o
ton nor Blucher deserves tlio credit of
wiuuing tlio buttle of Wutorloo, but
i This remarkable prediction was made
by the Chicago llecord: "It isn't tax
on street electric railways that is going
to ruin the electric street railway
business. A speedier death than that
by taxation awaits the whole system
of electrical appliance as operated at
present. Wo have information which
lends us to believe that within twelve
months a new macliino cipable of uso
for providing transportation, light
and heat will be put before the public;
that this machine will controvert tlio
"principles of electricity" which new
obtain ; will revolutionize all railway
aud other transportation systems; will
do away with fuel, gas and smoke;
will, in short, give humanity usidrcuined-ot
advantages at a very
moderate price. Yes. within tho next
twelvemonth wo arc goiug to sue soma I
Very wonderful happenings."
A rojie.it on tLiv uncultivated bast J
fihers of the United States by Ckailcs (
111-hard Dodge, special agent in |
charge of liber investigations, lias just i
been issued from the Department of J
Agriculture. Among the plants doscribed
are species foitn 1 in every sec- <
tiou of the United States, from Maine i
to Flori la and from Minnesota to
Arizona. Some of thorn are jute sub- j
btitutes, while others, if cultivated,
would pro luco a liber rivaling hemp, i
Ovir forty lilmr plants are treated in '
the report, tho history of twenty
forms being given in full with statements
regarding past efforts and experiments
toward their utilization.
Special chapters nro devoted to the
nselepias or milkweed fibers, okr.i,
cotton stalk fiber, the common abutilon?known
commercially as "China
jute," but growing in the feuco
corners of every Western farm?Colorado
llivcr hemp and many others.
Bo marvelous havo been tho triumphs
of tho human intellect in tho past,
that the Rochester Post-Expross liolicvos
that ho would bo a rash man
who should undcrtako to prescribe
boundaries to its discoveries in tho
future. For it may bo scarcoly a docade
bofore the very achievements declared
to ho impossible, will bo accomplished
fact. Fifty yoars ago Augusto
Comte, tho famous founder in
France of tho Positivist school of philosophy,
of which Frederic Harrison, in
England, is one of tho foromost expounders,
declared that thoro was
one field of knowlodgo that would forj-omain
hovnnd tho roach of tho
human mind. Thin was tho constitn- i
tion of tho fixed stars and tho olo- '
incuts of which thoy aro composed.
Tho nearest of tlioso stars being many
thousand of millions of miles from us,
Com to nflirmod that tho substances
constituting them must ever romaiu
locked in tho secrecy of fathomless
space. So probably thoy would had
man been able to arm himself with 110
moro potent apparatus of discovery
than was known in Comto's day, or
than would then have been bcliovod
possible. For to tho most powerful
1 1 41 f ...nnnl
VUiU?UU])t'a lliunu mi Ib\Y(l J Ui UO 1UT VUI
thomsclvcs as littlo more than shining
dots, betraying none of the secrets of
their structure. I?ut Comto hail
scarcely launche I his prediction, before
astronomers began to hit upon
anil perfect the discovery of the now
far-famed spectrum analysis, which
wrenches even from stars deep in the
recesses of illimitable space the nature
and number of tiio elements of which
they are composed. Many of these
elements are the same as those known
to us on our earth and in our sun ;
but some are strangers to our chemistry.
Cointe as a positivist was not
given to modesty- indeed was noted
for dogmatism but even he under
rftted tlio possible achievements of the
lmmnn intellect. In view of his nullified
prophecy, it need not 1>p counted
rrtsh to say tlint before another half
century has Mown, the oft-asked questions,
"can we communicnto with
Mars?" an I "can wo know whothcr it
has inhabitants?" may receive na affirmative
answer. For who can tell
with what new appnratUHof discovery, !
eclipsing any now possessed or j
dreamed of, man inry by that timo
have armed hitnscll?
A STRANGE STORY
THE WOES AND MISHAPS OF A VIRGINIAN
How ho ia Trying to Regain Hia Stolen Money.
The Park City, Kv., Times says that
a man has been iu that city for u few
lays who tells a rather sorrowful tale
of misfortune. His name is Pierce
Smith and ho is a Virginian. Tho
story goes that several years ago lie
was in that Bection and on passing
through stopped^ KOIllu work at a
farmhouse. He is a landscape and
house paintor, and while at work for
the farmer loBt or had taken from hun
a one-hundred-dollar bill that he had
laid up for a rainy day. Ho went to
the city and reported tho matter and
1?1 1 u:.
DUVVWUCU 1U aUUU YUAAlig Lilts UlUllUJf,
Then ho ^turned to hie home at
Gladosville, Ye., where he had bo mo
property, which he converted into
money. Ho went to work in the mine*
at that placo and loaned the mining
company about $1,200. While at work
in the mines he was struck on tho head
by a large shaft and so badly hurt that
his mind became unbalanced and he
was sent to a lunatic asylum for treatment.
After a tiino his reason was restored
and ho was released from tho
institution and sent back to Gladesvillo.
To his surpriso the mining company
denied ever having borrowed any
money from him and all his papers
had been destroyed and all evidence
of tho debt obliterated. Among the
money loaned the conipimy was tho
$100 bill which ho had lost and recovered
in Kentucky. It seems that
If he can prove that ho was tho poslessor
of the bill ho will bo to
Rstobiisli the iact of tho loan to tho
comnauv of tho $1,200. Tho bill in
question whs an ohl ouo ami bad been
torn in two and mended. This, with
tho number and all, makes it cosily
identified, and bio business in Park
Dity was to see if tho bank with which
tie did business and through which tho
lost bill was returned, could not mako
affidavit that he owned tho bill when
,11 Kentucky. He secured the desired
ifiidavit and other desired evidence
ind has started back'for Gladesvillc.
He walked all tho way from Virginia
iml started 011 tho return trip on foot.
When asked why he walked, lie replied
lliat ho had plenty time and could
save money by walking. His story is
1 somewhat extraordinary one, but
those who know him and remember the
nrcumatunces of his losing and rojovering
tho 3100 bill arc inclined to
TO NPHERSON AND WALKER.
The Atlanta Veterans of Both Sides Will
Erect a Joint Monument.
Atlanta, Ga. ? Tho Confederate
Veterans' Association took tho initiative
in the erection of a joiut monument
to tho memory of Gen. Mcl'lierson
of tho Federal army ami Geu. W.
II. T. Walker of the Confederate army
who were killed in a few yards of each
other in the battle of tho 22*1 of ?Tuly,
18(54. The Grand Armvpost of Atlan
tii will join in the movement. The
scheme is to raise $200,000, one-half
by each side, with which a heroic
double equestrian statute will l>e erected
upon the spot whore Mcl'herson
fell, Gen. Walker is to face the North,
and is to be clasping hands with Gen.
Mcl'herson, whose face will be to the
The project has been under consideration
for several months, and correspondence
already held with Federals
and Confederates throughout the
country gives promise of success. The
joint monument was suggested by tnu
tower to the memory of Wolff and
Montcalm in the Governor's garden in
Twenty-Six Tons of Silver Around the Altar.
Mexico City.?The erection of the
magnificent canopy over the high altar
of Our Lady in the shrine of Guadalupe
has been completed. The pillars to
Support it are each of a solid block of
polished Scotch granite weighing seven
Ions. The diameter of each pillar is .'1
feet, and the height 20 feet. The altar
tvill be ready for dedication on Dec. 12
(Guadalupe day), and will be the most
elaborate and costiy one in America.
The additions to the church edifice will
not be completed for nearly two years
?t tho present rate of progress. When
finished, tho shrine of the Lady of
Guadalupe will be one of tho notable
Catholic church edifices of the world.
Hie solid silver altar railing weighs
twenty-six tons, and many millions of
dollars are in other ways represented
ji the palatial place of worship.
A Hypochondriac Commits Suicide.
Alexandria, Va. ? Henry Daingerfield,
a prominent and wealthy citizen,
fatally shot himself in the right temph
;t his resilience in this city Tuesday
morning. Mr. Danigerfield had been
a hypochondriac for some time and
wis family were preparing to taka him
to Cold Sulphur Springs this afternoon.
lie had been atllicted with
usomnia. He has a wifo and five
hildren. Mr. Daingerfield, who was
ibout "?0 years of age, and was a man
?f considerable wealth,owned "Springfield,"
a lino estate in -Fairfax couuly.
'ost His Own Life in Trying to Save a
iliiiminoham, Ala. ? t. N. Cochrane,
i Southern Kx press messenger on the
,>ucen ?Nr Creneeiit road, met death
peculiarly. After leaving Livingston,
<?ing south,lie found that a tramp was
;>n top of his ear. Ho knew that an
verliead bridge was near by, and,
leaning out of his ear, he shouted to
In tramp, warning him of the danger,
lad knowing how close lie was to tin
Ire-tie at the time. Timbers of the
bridge hit Coehrane's head, crushing
be. skull, lie lived throe hours.
THE UHCUL TIE A TED 0ME3 OF THE UNI TED
The U. S. Department of Agriculture Issue
Something Very Interesting on Fiber
Tint FORKIQN SPBCIBS OF HIBI8CT78.
The most valuable foreign species of
his genns is the "hemp-like Hibiscus'*
(II. carmabinus). The plant is a
native of the East Indies, and at present
is largely cultivated for fiber
throughout India, tho product being
almost wholly utilized by tho agricultural
classes where grown as a substitute
for hemp. Its common names
are Docan hemp and Ambari hemp,tho
latter particularly in western India.
In Madras it is called Palungoo. It ip
the Maseta plant of Bengal and De'
ckanee hemp of Bombay. The Sanskrit
name is Nalika. The plant has a '
prickly stom, tho leaves deeply parted, .
and the stem attains a height of 6 to 8 *
foet. The fibor is described as soft,
white, and silky, and by some writers 1
is said to be more durable than jute.
Though thriving at all seasons of tho
year, it is generally cultivated in the
cold season. The seeds aro sown as
thickly as hemp, in rich, loose soil,and
it requires about three months* growth
boforo it is ready to bo pulled for
"watering" and dressing, the mode of
treatment boing tho same as that given
tho sunn hemp, Crotalaria junr.cn.
Full-grown plants that havo ripened
their seed furnished stronger fiber than
tho plants cut while in flower, through '
tho fibers of this species aro morn rc. '
merkablo for iheir fineness than for
In harvesting, tho plants aro either
cut close to tho ground or pulled up
by tho roots, as the lower portion of '
the stem contains tho best fiber. The
6talks aro submerged in water and '
allowed the remain from six to ten days,
according to the wenther, when the '
bark can be readily peeled by the '
hand. Too long steeping, while it
makes white fibor, results in a loss of
In a report of tho Revenue and
Agricultural Department of India '
another account is given, as follows:
The fiber is prepared by bundling
tho stalks, which, after a few days, are
steeped for nearly a week in water
under stones; wdion sufficiently retted '
they are cleaned by beating thorn on
iltn orrnnnil t)m fihor ttf rinniMl i?tV
washed, and dried. Five hundred '
stems, about 8 feet high, as grown en 1
masse in gardens, wore recently taken <
at random and the fiber removed ami
cjenned in the usual way; the result <
was 5J pounds clean ami good fiber. <
Tho steins when carefully dried 1
weighed nearly 20 pounds. Assuming i
tho acre to be 40,000 square feet after
allowing the waste patches, the number
of stems at 3 inches apart would i
be 040,000, hence the yield in clean <
fiber at 1 pound per 100 would be 0,- <
400 pounds, equal to 2 0-7 tons; the
items^would yield also 11 tons of 'poor |
fuel. Tho yield of three fine stems <
grown along tho ridges in turmeric \
plantations, ami measuring 10 to 17 i
feet high, was 3J ounce of clean fiber,
or somewhat over 1 ounce each,instead
of one-sixth of an ounce. The dried
atoms each weighed 5 ounces instead
of less than three-fourths of an ounce.
As to uses, a coarse sackcloth is made
from its fiber in India (sometimes
called gunny fiber), though its chief 1
employment is for ropes and cordage,
it being tho common cordage of the
country in a few districts. Coarse
canvas is also made from it. In Bengal ,
it is employed at the present time for
all the purposes of jute, and also for (
making fish nets and paper. Yetillart
The fiber of II. cannabintts is stilt
and brittle, and has no superiority
over jute, and it is very inferior to
that of India hemp or sunn. The
leaves of the plant are eaten as a pot
herb in many ports of India, the taste
being pleasantly acid, not unlike
Tho fibers of careluliy prepared Ambari
are from 5 to 6 feet long. Compared
with ordinary hemp they are
paler brown, harsher, adhere closer
together, though divisible into fine
fibrils, possessed of considerable
strength. Its tenacity tested with
sunn is as 115 to l!tO.
In the Kew Bulletin for August,
1891, tho announcement is made of
the discovery, on the shores of the
Caspian, oi ft new commercial liner
plant, known as KanafT, the fiber of
which, "from its abundance and consequent
cheapness, and its extraordinary
durability, will successfully compete
with any other textile for Backing,
ropes, and pack thread," with "a
greater resistance than hemp." The
plant is thought to bo Hdnsnts rannahinus,
the Dccan hemp plant of
llihisc.nn spicndrns (Hollyhock
tree).?Fiber from thin species,a native
of Queensland and New South Wales,
is exhibited in the museum of the
Department, prapared by Dr. W. 11.
Guilfoyle, director of the Melbourne
Botanic Gardens, who states that the
spec ion is a splendid tree, growing to
the height of 20 feet or more. "It is
very pubescent, bearing large pink
flowers resembling hollyhocks in size
and appearance." The fiber is suitable
for cordage, fish lines, paper, etc.
Fiber of f fidiscnssorhifofia andmu/ohi/is
was also received from Dr. Guilfoyle,
through the exhibition of INTO.
Both of these species are indigenous in
Queensland. //. tmifahil is is a native
of China, but grows in India and othei
eastern localities. Fiber of If. /rfrnnis
was also received with the above, but
does not differ materially.
i no i'luriuf or HJil/Kiitr, //. ftrooi't v?,
of t 1m* West Indies, prowa to a li?*i- lit
of lfi to 'Jl> feet, and its bark fnriiisli< s
a superior fiber, which, according t>>
Sipiier, "is not at all inferior to hemp
for most purposes." The liber is na
tnrally soft and white, and is admirable
for tlio manufacture of paper. It.
nlatu*, of tho Indies, is employed in
making cigarette wrappers. It is a
treo that grows to the height of 60 to
80 feet. Jtihiscus tiliaceua is worthy
of passing mention. It is culled
mojague in Ceutral America and the
West Indies, where it is much used for
cordage. It is little affected by
moisturo, and iB thoreforo selected by
surveyors for measuring-lines. It ih
the Hola ot 13cnjtd, and is found
throughout tropical and subtropical
regions of both continents. The native
method of preparing the fiber when a
rope or pieco of cordage iB wanted is
to strip tho bark from a branch, then,
folding ono end firmly botweon toeH,
first tearing it in strips, it is twisted by
the heuds. "1^ ^generally eul
uvated in Amehcs^r ^ to 1492."
Beautiful examples of this fiber wore
ihown in the Costa Rican exhibit in
Chicago, 1893. There are other spoces
growing in different portions of
.tin wnrlil tlm fihor <if ninnv ?if uliieli
s employed in native manufacture.
(To be continued.)
DR. POPE S PLACE SUPPLIED.
Prank Moon, of Newberry, Becomes a Can'
didate for Governor of South Carolina.
A special from Newberry, S. O.,
*nys: Because Dr. Sampson Pope has
withdrawn from the race for Governor
is 110 reason why Newberry is not to
furnish a man for that position. Mr.
Frank Moon, a sturdy farmer of thin
county, and a man who han n"vi>r
*oug!it hoi held oftico, made public
that he hade made up hia mind to enter
the raee for Governor. Ho had
not decided until he raw that Dr.
Popo had withdrawn. Though ho
loos not propose to enter the primary
lie in going to make his fight at the
general election in November. He,
too, was at one time a lteformor, but
iroposes to make this]fight as a protest
igainst ring mule and bossism. He is
in deed earnest nml will issue his manifesto
early next week and will stny
into the finish if hconly gets one vote,
lie nays he is built of "sticking stuff,"
ind is a graduate of the South Carolina
College before the war.
DEATH TO DIPHTHERIA GERMS.
inoculation a Sure Cure That Will Save
New York City. ? At a preliminary
session of tho Htato board of health Dr.
Cyrus A. Kdson pave an account of
the theory and practical application of
Dr. Koch's lust discovery, which ho
outsiders an absolute and iniallihle
mre lor diphtheria within thirty-six
lionrs after infection. To study and
report upon this remedy, Dr. Herman
M. Briggs, the bacteriologist of the
New York hoard of health, had been
sent to Berlin and had jnst returned,
continuing all the enthusiastic reports
concerning the discovery.
It is tho purpose of the health department
to ask for an appropriation to
establish a plant for the production
of this infallible specific, which
utherwiso would be too costly to be
within the menus of pour people. Dr.
Kdt-oii asserted that if this rentedv
were placed in the hands of the health
department, it would save the Jivct
next year of 1,50(1 persons in this city.
Has Prayed Over It and Found That He is
F. M. Jordan, in a curd in the Brevard
(N. C.) llustfer, says he has made it
u matter of special prayer to (iod iih to
who should represent Transylvania
county in the Legislature, and it is
perfectly clear to h i "mind that (dial
lias indicated to me (him) that it is His
will that I should give the people of
Transylvania county an opportunity to
vote for a sober, moral and, I trust,
Christian man." Believing that he
has been "called" to represent the
county, Mr. Jordan says his platform
is "(dud's eternal Truth." He wants to
go to the Legislature, he says, not for
the money or honor that is in it, "but
expressly for the glory of God and the
happiness of the people of my land and
count v." Having thus announced
himself, Mr. .Ionian leaves tins matter
to the prayerful consideration of the
voters of Transylvania.
Sam Speace's Strange Adventure.
(From the Atlanta Constitution.)
A queer itsry comes from North
Carolina. Sain Spruce, a colored
man of I'nion county, was in the
woods gathering will grapes. lie
elimhed a tier and slipped oil", llis
foot heroine entangled in the viuesaud
he was suspended in the air by one
foot. Spi ner had to wait for assistance,
whirh did not arrive for more
than an hour. The blood all flowed
toward his head, mid after he was taken
down lie became very sick. Since that
time all the wool of his head has pulled
out and lie is getting almost as white
as a white man. Ifisskiu tirst began
fading in spots, which have now spread
all over his body.
He Loved Hot Wisely.
Oiii'KNSnono, N. C. lYarre Webb,
the adopted son of l>r. and Mrs. A. M.
r i> ,:.i. ,.:n ?n . i
inifsrn, t?l lU'Mih> lllt'j III I ('111 | >11'< I
suicide at tlint place. lie shot himself
through the neck with a pistol. It
ia understood that lie left a note saying
a love affair caused him to attempt to
cml his life. He is not dead, but is
Texas May Lose lis Cotton Crop.
Dai.i.as, Tex. In the face of a I
general belief in the magnificent condition
of th<' cotton eiop. the (hirland
News, published in the heart of the
cotton regit.ii of Ihdl e; county, states
that in that section half of the cotton
crop has bcu destroyed by boll worms
and tied if the shower.i continue the
crop n> likely to be entirely destroyed.
PITHY NEWS ITEMS.
Staunton, Vn., has issued ?145,000
of 5 per cent bonds.
The trustees of the Charlest<\,S. C.,
High School will expend ?12,000 in
in erecting an annex to the school
At Franklin, N. C., a new ?10,000
hotel is going up.
Finns are being prepared for a two
story brick building to be erecton on
llie maie nospuai grounds morgniiioii,
N. C., at h cost of from $10,000 to $15,000.
Jas. A. Locklmrt, of Anson county,
w?h nominated at Lumbcrton, N. C.,
lust week for Congress, on the 340tli
Tho 8th N. C. district Republicans
met at Wilkesboro, and nominated
R. Z. Linney for Congress. lie lias
also been endorsed by the Populists.
Hon. II. Clay Evans, formerly Con
gressman from East Tennessee, was
nominated for Governor of Tennessee
by the Republicans last week.
Four minora were killed in a most
horrible manner in Credo, (Nil., Friday.
The shaft house caught fire and
melted the wire elevator rope, letting
the elevator Unr the men from the ladder.
Jefferson Davis Milton, the newly
appointed chief of police of El Paso,
Texas, is a son of John Milton, tho
Confederate war Governor of Florida,
who committed suicide when lie heard
of Gen. Lee's surrender.
A large body of colored people in
Mississippi, says the Chicago InterOcean,
lias sent two representatives to
Africa to view the country. In case
the conditions are favorable they proprose
to leave en masse for the Dark
Tl,,> V,,HI, rnlltvnv
- ... ?. ." ..j
wus sold at Statcsville, N. to tho
iouthern Railway Co., for $oi)().00().
i'ho hitter co 111 pa 11 v has nl.so purchased
the Knoxville, Cumberland Gap \*
Louisville II. It., running from Knoxville
to Middlesboro, Ky.t at Winston,
NT. C., the Northwi -stern North C'arolina
railroad was also sold to the Southern
Railway for $2jO,GOO.
Senator Hansom Iuik tiled at tho State
Department a strongly endorsed application
of E. J. Hale, of Fayctteville,
N. C., to be consul to Manchester,
England. Tho present incumbent is
Wm. F. Grinuell, a lb-publican, who
entered the consular service in 1<S77.
Rev. W. E. Edmoiiston was confirmed
as chaplain in the Navy. He is a
Methodist. His salary begins with
$2,000, with gradual increase to$3,000.
Why lie Could Not Sell tlie I)oj,
A gentleman was walking with his
little boy at the close of tho day and
in passing the ottago of a German
workman the boy's attention was attracted
to a dog. Tt was not ,\ King
Charles nor a lilaek and tan, but a
common cur. Still, the boy took a
fancy to him, and wanted "pa" to liny
him. Just then the owner of the dog
came homo from his labors, and was
mot by the dog with every demonstration
of dm; iov. The gentleman said
to the owner:
"My little hoy 1ms taken a funny to
your dog and 1 will huy him. What
do you ask for him?"
"J can't 8011 dot dog," said tho
"Look hero," said the gentleman,
"that in a poor dog, anyway, but as
iny hoy wants him 1 will give you $5
"Yuan,'' said tho German, "1 know
he is a worry poor dog, and ho ain't
wort almost liottin', hut dero ish von
lectio ding mid dat dog vot 1 can't
Bell?I can't sell do vag of his tail von
1 comes homo at night."?New York
Thou Shalt Not Chew Nor Smoke.
Among tho interesting proceedings
of tho annual meeting oftlie Society of
Friends recently held in High Point,
N. (, was the adoption of the report of
the temperance committee, which says
among other things: "We recommend
Unit in the 111111 re no incomer ot the
Society of Friends of North Carolina
slmll be recorded ms n minister, or appointed
an elder, who engages in the
use of tolmceo." This is the '"tobacco
jdatforin" says theCharleston News and
Courier which the (Quakers have long
been endeavoring to adopt and which
they now stand upon.
Receipts of New Cotton.
New cotton received at New Orleans
includes -1,7111 hales from Texas and *2*2
hal oh from the Mississippi Valley
The first hale of cotton for Columbia,
S. was purchased by I >. Crawford X
Son. It was classed as strict middling,
weighed fits pounds and brought 7
cents per pound. The crop prospect*around
fnhunhia are ver\ good.
The first hale of new North Carolina
cotton \\ ms Inoiic.ht to M'ndeshoro I?v
W. II. Oiloin, who is the Populist ennlidate
for clerk of the court there.
Masonic Triennial Convention.
Toit.ka, K a vs. The tweutv ninth
dated Triennial ('onvocntion of tin
Hoy a I Arch Masons of t lie 1'nitod State'
enlivened here at liioli noon. Tin
Mil I'etweeii rival cities for the meetin^
place of the next convocation is
well oti. Southern delo?*nt?a want it
to he Im 111 in Atlanta, while the laistern
ineli are cIi\ i I<I latweeii lln-dmi,
I hilailelphia ami New York. \'ir;:ijr.ii
delegates are pressing the claims ul
IN A SUGAR REFINERY.
PROCESSES BY WHICH THE RAW
SUGAR IS REFINED.
Terrific Heat Endured by Some of
tho Workmen?Lite in tlic Drying
IT is doubtful if tliero is any other
group of buildings in or near
New York where tho fearful difliculties
under which men labor
for tho baro privilege of living, are so
plainly shown as thoy are in tho
towering, forbidding, fortross-liko
structures on tho East River front of
Brooklyn, owned by tho American
Sugar llcfiniug Company, better
known as the Sugar Trust.
Tho big buildings cover a space of
four blocks on both sides of Kent
avenue, from .South First to South
Fifth streets, and on tho west side of
tho avenue extend to the river front,
their grimy, dull-red walls extending
seventeen stories abovo tho street
1 < * ; iiirt
ll'VUI. /V CIUSU lunjiumuu w. >mu
Havemeyer rcfiucries is necessary to
a thorough realization ot tlio immensity
of the establishment, aud
this group is one of the rolitiingplaces
owned by the trust. It has no equal
in size or in the amount of its business
in the limits of tho (Ireater Now
iork. Tho employes of the great
concern are disciplined with rules as
strict as those which govern an
army. If nuo attempts to get into
tho refineries ho meets the discipliuo
in tho shape of a gruff watchman and
a club, aud a call at tho offices reveals
it in the shape of a more or i6ss polite
negative from tho clerks, who will say
that they cannot answer questions.
There arc about 3000 men employed
in the big refineries, and theso are
divided into day and niglit shifts.
About 5 o'clock in the morning half
of the force can be seen tiling dowu
into the basement of one of tho great
buildings. Work is begun immediately,
and continued until 5 in
the evening, when the men are supplied
with checks, showing that they
woro on hand when work begun.
The majority of tho workmen are
Poles and Hungarians, and the severity
of tlieir labors is shown by the fact
that they aro nearly all thin aud
stooped, and rarely above middle age,
it being a wcll-kuown fact that men
employed in the refineries rarely livo
to old age. They are nearly new immigrants
when first employed, ami before
work is given them they must lie
found perfectly docile and obedient.
The rules of tho refineries are laid
down to the anplicaut for employment,
and ho is tohl that ho will receive
81.12, SI.25 or SI.50 as the case may
he, for the first year, and then, if his
work is satisfactory, he may receive
an additional five or ten cents a day.
The man is assigned to work in one of
the many departments, aud if he has
received the "tip"' from friends of his
own nationality before going to work,
he trembles lest tho edict may condemn
liim to tho "dry room." It it
be that, however, ho receives it with
characteristic stolidity, and is thankful
for an opportunity to earn his miserable
pittance, even under such terrible
When the raw sugar is dumped from
the ship in which it is brought to tho
refineries it is placed in a great cistern
near the river's edge, and is dissolved
in hot water. From this vat a sweet,
sticky steam constantly arises, and
every little while a workman, dressed
in overalls and an undershirt, pops
out from it, and in a minute or so pops
back again, aud is lost to sight in the
moist cloud. Tho liquid is pumped
up to the top story of the pile, passing
through a wire strainer, which removes
any particles of size which may
be iu it, and is emptied into great copper
receptacles heated to 'JOS or 210
degrees Fahrenheit, known as boilers.
Tho process of boiling requires considerable
skill, and the men who liavo
charge of it arc paid $100 or $150 a
month, the number receiving the latter
figure being extremely limited,
only one man in a hundred who receives
employment in the refineries
becoming a boiler, which is tho highest
ambition of the workmen.
'I he boiling and bubbling sugar is
passed <U wii through funuols to tho
next lloor, where it is emptied into a
box, the bottom of which consist-) of
two thicknesses of cnnv.-is, ono being
course, the other lino. This thoroughly
filters tho stuff, and ttie room is
kept ut a territietemperature in order
that the liquid sugar may llovv freely,
and not become eool and thick. On
tho lloor below is another great copper
tank, some twenty-tivo foot deep
and nearly tilled with bono black.
This purities tho sugar, and, after being
used for a few hours, becomes sureharged
with foulness, and is sent to
1 ,1 . ...1 l?..nn.1
tilt) luwvr noi'r, niit'iu >i> m uutusu
again. Tito sugar, which is still kept
at h temperature af about 1~?J degreosj
is passed into another receptacle,
which is made airtight, an 1 the air
in 1 stoma nro exitlusted by means of
a }> 11 ini>. As soon as tlio sugar is gran*
uluteil, if it is to be soft, it is lot o!T
by moans of centrifugal mills. If not,
it is passed on to tlio great plates to
1 be dried.
Tim rooms in which the drying is
carried on are veritable infernos. No
man o an stay in them over ten minutes
without falling down utterly
prod rated by the torrilic heat. No
one I .it an employe n ever allowed
within thesi walls, an I no one but an
employe would dare to go in them
i when the heat is on an I the sugar is
. diving. Clothing ia discarded, with
^ the exception of a "breech clout" and
slii> and tlieru >s absolutely no ventilation,
as tlio windows nro kept
t 'giltIy close I, an I at the win lows in
oilier r<> mis which urn open I ho men
i r.isv be se-ii gasping for breath, an 1
s 11 ii t heir 11 tit* him '> ? Ii s as wet as if
i (iicv hud b en plunge I in t!ie Ravi
Itiver, in their short respite from t lieir
J frightful toil.- New York Tribune.
CORBETT AND JACKSON.
SIOUX CITY WANTS THEM TO FIGHT
Tha Offara Ac cap tad, but Mayor Flatcber
Says Ho Will Not Allow It.
Sioux Grrr, Iowa.?Corbett'b mnnaEei',
William A. Brady, has telegraphed
it acceptance of the Sioux City Athletic
Club's $25,000 offer for tho CorbcttJackeon
fight. Jackson telegraphed
that he would accept if training expenses
were guaranteed hiiu provided
the fight did not take place.
The guarantee was made.
"I will not permit this prize fight to
occur within tho corporate limita of
Sioux City," said Mayor Fletcher, in
peaking of the effort 19 iuiiko -the
match. "What is more,"^1 doubt if it
I will be allowed to be fought 011 Iowa
soil. So far as my jurisdiction ih concerned
I shall unalterably opposo the
. movement to have tho battle fought
Washington, D. C.?Patents havo
been granted to tho following meritorious
Lantern slide mat, PercyS. Benedict,
New Orleans, La.
Sheet fender, Geo. R. Clarko,
Adjustible ratclict-wreneh, CLbb. IT.
BcrnheiiVi, LeAiugion, N. C.
Wire stretching spool carrier, Thou.
P. Williams, Abilene, Tex.
Fertilizer distributor, Daniel M.
Averitt, Bedford, Ky.
Type holder, Jno. C. Corbett, Corbctt,
Railway switch, Jno. F. Obcr, New
Drying kiln, La Fayette Moore, Cordele,
Hay press, SamuelEtchison.Weiucr,
The Height ol Mountains.
There are three ways of measuring'
tho height of mountains, namely, by
the barometer, by observations of tho'
atmospheric pressure, by observation
of the boiling poiut of water and by
calculation from data supplied by accurate
surveying instruments, tho
necessary formula) being supplied by
trigonometry. This last plan, knowu!
as triaugulation, is by far tho most
accurate method. Tho tirst method is
based on the fact that tho atmosphere
is denses' at the surface of the earth,
having there to support tho weight of
tho whole column of air above it, and
the (iecseaso in preesure Doing Kiiowa
by the barometer enables the observer,
after duo allowances, according to
temperature, to work out tlio height
of the mountain. The second method
of observing the boiling point of water
by the thermometer is bused on tho
well-known fact that water boils at 212
degrees Fahrenheit, at the level of tho
sen, or at a pressuro of thirty inches
of mercury; and us the relaticu between
the pressuro and tho boiling
point is accurately known, tho height
can bo measured in this way moro or
less accurately. Triangulation is tho
name applied to tho process of calculation
by measuring tho angles of triangles.
Tlio angles having beemeasured
by tho theodolite uti
knowing them and one side, trigonometry
enables the snrveyor to calculate*
the other two. Measuring by this
method is done with wonderful correctness.
Two instances of this accuracy
arc given in Thornton's
"Physiography," one of a plain, and
the other of a mountain. Tho length
of Salisbury l'lain was ascertained
with a result that was less than five
inches from the measured value. Tho
luti/vlit l^Au.ATonillntl wnu nalpillaipfl
to bo 4295.0 feet, and this height*
when cheeked, proved to bo within
one and one-half inches.?New York.
A Colt Punishes u ltaui for Cruelty.
Tho following is a little incident!
which came nuder tho observation of
the writer: Two yonug horses liavo
been kept in a pasture, with a number
of cows aud a year-old calf, and they
were accustomed to come up to tho
gate every night with tho cows, tha
older leading the line and the younger
bringing up tho rear. Owing to a want
of water in their pastnro, soma
sneop worn nruugut ui iu? one m
which the horses and cows wcro kept,
and these sometimes followed tho
cowh when they came at night to bo
milked. One night they did so, and
when all the animals were standing together
the ram butted the calf, which,
could not defend itself, an l the other;
colt, going over to it, seized the . rani
by the wool on its back and, liftiug it,
entirely oflf the ground, shook it vigorously.
He then placed it on tho)
ground and it quickly ran away, wliil.j
the horse continued to stand g'.iar t
over his friend.?Our Dumb Annuals,.
North Carolina Farmers' Alliance.
Raleiuh, N. C.?The State FurmcrH*
Alliance Iuih authorized the organization
of the "Alliance Mfg. Co.," for
the purposo of manufacturing sheet,
clothing anil hats, tanning leather, etc.
The Alliance has cut down snlarie:,
president from $3 to S'2 a day when
traveling; State business agent from
$1,000 to 81,200; Hccretary-treaHurt r
from 81,200 to 31,000; trustee of bufci*
ucsa fund from ?H00 to ?700.
Divorce Case in High Life.
Mrs. Lyman, of Aslieville, N.
who was a Miss Cunningham, of Richmond,
Va., is suing for divorce, iu
lluncombe county, with Maj. Clar) o
Springfield of Richmond, as attorney.
The Moravians claim to havo had an
independent church in Bohemia as
arly as the ninth century.
One of tho largest aassairas trees
in this country is in Central l'nrk,
A New York City.